Journal Articles


62. R.A. Lehane, A. Gamero-Quijano, S. Malijauskaite, A. Holzinger, M. Conroy, F. Laffir, A. Kumar, U. Bangert, K. McGourty, M.D. Scanlon; Electrosynthesis of biocompatible free-standing PEDOT thin films at a polarized liquid|liquid interface, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2022. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c12373.

61. Y. Liu, R. Moshrefi, W.D.A. Rickard, M.D. Scanlon, T.J. Stockmann, D.W.M. Arrigan; Ion-transfer electrochemistry at arrays of nanoscale interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions arranged in hexagonal format, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2022, 909, 116113. DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2022.116113.

60. A. Gamero-Quijano, P.-A. Cazade, S. Bhattacharya, S. Walsh, G. Herzog, D. Thompson, M.D. Scanlon; On the origin of chaotrope-modulated electrocatalytic activity of Cytochrome c at electrified aqueous|organic interfaces, Chemical Communications, 2022, 58, 3270-3273. DOI: 10.1039/d1cc05293d.

59. M.F. Suárez-Herrera, A. Gamero-Quijano, J. Solla-Gullón, M.D. Scanlon; Mimicking the microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur with a biphasic electrochemical cell, Electrochimica Acta, 2022, 401, 139443. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2021.139443.

Open access link.


58. A. Gamero-Quijano, S. Bhattacharya, P.-A. Cazade, A.F. Molina-Osorio, C. Beecher, A. Djeghader, T. Soulimane, M. Dossot, D. Thompson, G. Herzog, M.D. Scanlon; Modulating the pro-apoptotic activity of cytochrome c at a biomimetic electrified interface, Science Advances, 20217, eabg4119. DOI: 10.1039/D0SC05786J.

Open access link.

57. A.F. Molina-Osorio, S. Yamamoto, I. Robayo-Molina, A. Gamero-Quijano, H. Nagatani, M.D. Scanlon; A soft on/off switch based on the electrochemically reversible H–J interconversion of a floating porphyrin membrane, Chemical Science, 2021, 12, 10227-10232. DOI: 10.1039/D0SC05786J.

Open access link.

56. I. Robayo-Molina, A.F. Molina-Osorio, L. Guinane, S.A.M. Tofail, M.D. Scanlon; Pathway complexity in supramolecular porphyrin self-assembly at an immiscible liquid–liquid interface, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2021143, 9060–9069. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.1c02481.

Open access link.

55. A. Gamero-Quijano, M. Dossot, A. Walcarius, M.D. Scanlon, G. Herzog; Electrogeneration of a free-standing cytochrome c—silica 

matrix at a soft electrified interface, Langmuir, 2021, 37, 4033-4041. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00409.

Open access link.


54. P. Ge, M. Hojeij, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Photo‐recycling the sacrificial electron donor: Towards sustainable hydrogen evolution in a biphasic system, ChemPhysChem, 2020, 21, 2630-2633. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.202000844.

Open access link.

53. I.S. Amiinu, N. Kapuria, T.E. Adegoke, A. Holzinger, H. Geaney, M.D. Scanlon, K.M. Ryan; Evolution of hierarchically-layered Cu-rich silicide nano-architectures, Crystal Growth & Design, 2020, 20, 6677-6682. DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.0c00833.

Open access link.

52. E.D. Burgoyne, A.F. Molina-Osorio, R. Moshrefi, R. Shanahan, G.P. McGlacken, T.J. Stockmann, M.D. Scanlon; Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecules at an electrified liquid|liquid micro-interface through facilitated proton transfer, Analyst, 2020, 145, 7000-7008. DOI: 10.1039/D0AN01245A.

Open access link.

51. A.F. Molina-Osorio, J.A. Manzanares, A. Gamero-Quijano, M.D. Scanlon; Electrochemically controlled ion dynamics in porphyrin nanostructures, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2020, 124, 18346-18355. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04976.

Open access link.

50. M.F. Suárez-Herrera, M.D. Scanlon; Quantitative analysis of redox-inactive ions by AC voltammetry at a polarized interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions, Analytical Chemistry, 2020, 92, 10521-10530. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01340.

Open access link.

49. A.F. Molina-Osorio, D.L. Cheung, C. O'Dwyer, A.A. Stewart, M. Dossot, G. Herzog, M.D. Scanlon; Self-assembly of porphyrin nanostructures at the interface between two immiscible liquids, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2020, 124, 6929-6937. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c00437.

Open access link.

48. A.F. Molina-Osorio, A. Gamero-Quijano, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon; Membraneless energy conversion and storage using immiscible electrolyte solutions, Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 2020, 21, 100-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2020.01.013.

Open access link.

47. A. Gamero-Quijano, G. Herzog, M.D. Scanlon; Aqueous surface chemistry of gold mesh electrodes in a closed bipolar electrochemical cell, Electrochimica Acta, 2020, 330, 135328. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.135328.

Open access link.


46. M.F Suarez-Herrera, M.D Scanlon; On the non-ideal behaviour of polarised liquid-liquid interfaces, Electrochimica Acta, 2019, 328, 135110. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.135110.

Open access link.

45. A. Gamero-Quijano, G. Herzog, M.D Scanlon; Bioelectrochemistry of Cytochrome c in a closed bipolar electrochemical cell, Electrochemistry Communications, 2019, 109, 106600. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2019.106600.

Open access link.

44. E.D. Burgoyne, T.J. Stockmann, A.F. Molina-Osorio, R. Shanahan, G.P. McGlacken, M.D. Scanlon; Electrochemical detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecules at a liquid|liquid interface, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2019, 123, 24643-24650. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b08350.

43. L. Rivier, P. Peljo, S. Maye, M.A Méndez, H. Vrubel, L.A.C Vannay, C. Corminboeuf, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Mechanistic study of the photo‐generation of hydrogen by decamethylruthenocene, Chemistry–A European Journal, 2019, 25, 12769-12779. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201902353.

42. M.F Suárez-Herrera, P.-A. Cazade, D. Thompson, M.D. Scanlon; Monitoring transient changes in the structure of water at a polarised liquid-liquid interface using electrocapillary curves, Electrochemistry Communications, 2019, 106,106564. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2019.106564.

41. A. Gamero-Quijano, A.F. Molina-Osorio, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon; Closed bipolar electrochemistry in a four-electrode configuration, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2019, 21, 9627-9640. DOI: 10.1039/C9CP00774A.


40. M.D. Scanlon, E. Smirnov, T.J. Stockmann, P. Peljo; Gold nanofilms at liquid-liquid interfaces: An emerging platform for redox electrocatalysis, nanoplasmonic sensors, and electrovariable optics, Chemical Reviews, 2018, 118, 3722-3751. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00595.

39. P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, T.J. Stockmann; Simulations employing finite element method at liquid|liquid interfaces, Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 2018, 7, 200-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.coelec.2017.09.011.


38. P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, A.J. Olaya, L. Rivier, E. Smirnov, H.H. Girault; Redox electrocatalysis of floating nanoparticles: determining electrocatalytic properties with the influence of solid supports, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2017, 8, 3564-3575. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b00685.

37. M.D. Scanlon, P. Peljo, L. Rivier, H.H. Girault; Mediated water electrolysis in biphasic systems, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2017, 19, 22700-22710. DOI: 10.1039/C7CP04601D.

36. L. Rivier, P. Peljo, L.A.C. Vannay, G.C. Gschwend, M.A. Méndez, C. Corminboeuf, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Photoproduction of hydrogen by decamethylruthenocene combined with electrochemical recycling, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2017, 56, 2324-2327. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201610240.


35. J.C. Hidalgo-Acosta, M.D. Scanlon, M.A. Méndez, P. Peljo, M. Opallo, H.H. Girault; Enhanced reactivity of water clusters towards oxidation in water/acetonitrile mixtures, ChemElectroChem, 2016, 3, 2033-2007. DOI: 10.1002/celc.201600190.

34. E. Smirnov, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, F. Gumy, H.H. Girault; Self-healing gold mirrors and filters at liquid – liquid interfaces, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 7723-7737. DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00371K.

33. J.C. Hidalgo-Acosta, M.D. Scanlon, M.A. Méndez, V. Amstutz, H. Vrubel, M. Opallo, H.H. Girault; Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2016, 18, 9295-9304. DOI: 10.1039/C5CP06890H.

32. E. Smirnov, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Gold nanofilm redox catalysis for oxygen reduction at soft interfaces, Electrochimica Acta, 2016, 197, 362-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.10.104.


31. M.D. Scanlon, P. Peljo, M.A. Méndez, E. Smirnov, H.H. Girault; Charging and discharging at the nanoscale: Fermi level equilibration of metallic nanoparticles, Chemical Science, 2015, 6, 2705-2720. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC00461F.

30. L. Rivier, T.J. Stockmann, M.A. Méndez, M.D. Scanlon, P. Peljo, M. Opallo, H.H. Girault; Decamethylruthenocene hydride and hydrogen formation at liquid|liquid interfaces, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2015, 119, 25761-25769. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b08148.

29. E. Smirnov, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Interfacial redox catalysis on gold nanofilms at soft interfaces. ACS Nano, 2015, 9, 6565-6575. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02547.

28. J.C. Hidalgo-Acosta, M.A. Méndez, M.D. Scanlon, H. Vrubel, V. Amstutz, W. Adamiak, M. Opallo, H.H. Girault; Catalysis of water oxidation in acetonitrile by iridium oxide nanoparticles. Chemical Science, 2015, 6, 1761-1769. DOI: 10.1039/C4SC02196G.


27. E. Smirnov, M.D. Scanlon, D. Momotenko, H. Vrubel, M.A. Méndez, P.F. Brevet, H.H. Girault; Gold metal liquid-like droplets, ACS Nano, 2014, 8, 9471-9481. DOI: 10.1021/nn503644v.

26. M.A. Méndez, P. Peljo, M.D. Scanlon, H. Vrubel, H.H. Girault; Photo-Ionic cell: Two solutions to store solar energy and generate electricity on demand. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2014, 118, 16872-16883. DOI: 10.1021/jp500427t.

25. L. Liao, X. Bian, J. Xiao, B. Liu, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault; Nanoporous molybdenum carbide wires as an active electrocatalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2014, 16, 10088-10094. DOI: 10.1039/C3CP54754J.

24. E. Alvarez de Eulate, L. Qiao, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault, D.W.M. Arrigan; Fingerprinting the tertiary structure of electroadsorbed lysozyme at soft interfaces by electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry. Chemical Communications, 2014, 50, 11829-11832. DOI: 10.1039/C4CC05545D.

23. S. Rastgar, H. Deng, F. Cortés-Salazar, M.D. Scanlon, M. Pribil, V. Amstutz, A.A. Karyakin, S. Shahrokhian, H.H. Girault; Oxygen reduction at soft interfaces catalyzed by in situ-generated reduced graphene oxide. ChemElectroChem, 2014, 1, 59-63. DOI: 10.1002/celc.201300140.

22. L. Liao, S.Wang, J. Xiao, X. Bian, Y. Zhang, M.D. Scanlon, X.Hu, Y. Tang, B. Liu, H.H. Girault; A nanoporous molybdenum carbide nanowire as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction. Energy and Environmental Science, 2014, 7, 387-392. DOI: 10.1039/C3EE42441C.


21. L. Liao, J. Zhu, X. Bian, L. Zhu, M.D. Scanlon, H.H. Girault, B. Liu; MoS2 formed on mesoporous graphene as a highly active catalyst for hydrogen evolution. Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23, 5326–5333. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300318.

20. P.P. Fang, S. Chen, H. Deng, M.D. Scanlon, F. Gumy, H.J. Lee, D. Momotenko, V. Amstutz, F. Cortés-Salazar, C. M. Pereira, Z. Yang, H. H Girault; Conductive gold nanoparticle mirrors at liquid/liquid interfaces. ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9241-9248. DOI: 10.1021/nn403879g.

19. M.D. Scanlon; Subtle changes, dramatic effects: homogeneous catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction. ChemCatChem, 2013, 5, 1696-1697. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300251.

18. U. Salaj-Kosla, M.D. Scanlon, T. Baumeister, K. Zahma, R. Ludwig, P. Ó Conghaile, D. MacAodha, D. Leech, E. Magner; Mediated electron transfer of cellobiose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase at osmium polymer-modified nanoporous gold electrodes, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2013, 405, 3823-3830. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6657-4.

17. X. Bian, M.D. Scanlon, L. Liao, S. Wang, B. Liu, H.H. Girault; Floating conductive catalytic nano-rafts at soft interfaces for hydrogen evolution. Chemical Science, 2013, 4, 3432-3441. DOI: 10.1039/C3SC51290H.

16. P. Ge, A.J. Olaya, M.D. Scanlon, I. Hatay Patir, H. Vrubel, H.H. Girault; Photo-induced biphasic hydrogen evolution: decamethylosmocene as a light driven electron donor. ChemPhysChem, 2013, 14, 2308-2316. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300122.

15. M.D. Scanlon, X. Bian, H. Vrubel, V. Amstutz, K. Schenk, X. Hu, B. Liu, H.H. Girault; Low-cost industrially available molybdenum boride and carbide as “platinum-like” catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction in biphasic liquid systems. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2013, 15, 2847-2857. DOI: 10.1039/C2CP44522K.


14. P. Ge, M.D. Scanlon, P. Peljo, X. Bian, H. Vubrel, A. O'Neill, J.N. Coleman, M. Cantoni, X. Hu, K. Kontturi, B. Liu, H.H. Girault; Hydrogen evolution across nano-schottky junctions at carbon supported MoS2 catalysts in biphasic liquid systems. Chemical Communications, 2012, 48, 6484-6486. DOI: 10.1039/C2CC31398G.

13. X. Bian, J. Zhu, L. Liao, M.D. Scanlon, P. Ge, C. Ji, H.H. Girault, B. Liu; Nanocomposite of MoS2 on ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres: a highly active catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen evolution. Electrochemistry Communications, 2012, 22, 128–132. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2012.06.009.

12. U. Salaj-Kosla, S. Pöller, Y. Beyl, M.D. Scanlon, S. Beloshapkin, S. Shleev, W. Schuhmann, E. Magner; Direct electron transfer of bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium verrucaria) at an unmodified nanoporous gold biocathode. Electrochemistry Communications, 2012, 16, 92–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2011.12.007.

11. M.D. Scanlon, U. Salaj-Kosla, S. Belochapkine, D. MacAodha, D. Leech, Y. Ding, E. Magner; Characterization of nanoporous gold electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications. Langmuir, 2012, 28, 2251–2261. DOI: 10.1021/la202945s.


10. M.D. Scanlon, D.W.M. Arrigan; Enhanced electroanalytical sensitivity via interface miniaturisation: ion transfer voltammetry at an array of nanometre liquid–liquid interfaces. Electroanalysis, 2011, 23, 1023–1028. DOI: 10.1002/elan.201000667.


9. M.D. Scanlon, J. Strutwolf, A. Blake, D. Iacopino, A.J. Quinn, D.W.M. Arrigan; Ion-transfer electrochemistry at arrays of nano-interfaces between immiscible electrolyte solutions confined within silicon nitride nanopore membranes. Analytical Chemistry, 2010, 82, 6115–6123. DOI: 10.1021/ac1008282.

8. M.D. Scanlon, J. Strutwolf, D.W.M. Arrigan; Voltammetric behaviour of biological macromolecules at arrays of aqueous|organogel micro-interfaces. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2010, 12, 10040-10047. DOI: 10.1039/C003323E.

7. J. Strutwolf, M.D. Scanlon, D.W.M. Arrigan; The performance of differential pulse stripping voltammetry at micro-liquid–liquid interface arrays. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2010, 641, 7-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2010.01.020.

6. M.D. Scanlon, A. Berduque, J. Strutwolf, D.W.M. Arrigan; Flow-injection amperometry at microfabricated silicon-based u-liquid-liquid interface arrays. Electrochimica Acta, 2010, 55, 4234-4239. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.12.014.


5. M.D. Scanlon, E. Jennings, D.W.M. Arrigan; Electrochemical behaviour of hen-egg-white lysozyme at the polarized water|1,2-dichloroethane interface. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2009, 11, 2272-2280. DOI: 10.1039/B815589E.

4. J. Strutwolf, M.D. Scanlon, D.W.M. Arrigan; Electrochemical ion transfer across liquid/liquid interfaces confined within solid-state micropore arrays – simulations and experiments. Analyst, 2009, 134, 148-158. DOI: 10.1039/B815256J.


3. M.D. Scanlon, G. Herzog, D.W.M. Arrigan; Electrochemical detection of oligopeptides at silicon-fabricated micro-liquid|liquid interfaces. Analytical Chemistry, 2008, 80, 5743-5749. DOI: 10.1021/ac800089p.


2. A. Berduque, M.D. Scanlon, C.J. Collins, D.W.M. Arrigan; Electrochemistry of non-redox-active poly(propylenimine) and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers at liquid-liquid interfaces. Langmuir, 2007, 23, 7356-7364. DOI: 10.1021/la063294w.


1. A.M. O’Mahony, M.D. Scanlon, A. Berduque, V. Beni, D.W.M. Arrigan, E. Faggi, A. Bencini; Voltammetry of chromium (VI) at the liquid|liquid interface. Electrochemistry Communications, 2005, 7, 976-982. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2005.06.011.

Book Chapters

Electroanalytical Chemistry: A series of Advances, A.J. Bard and C.G. Zosk (Eds)

Chapter 3: Bioanalytical applications of electrochemistry at liquid-liquid micro-interfaces

D.W.M. Arrigan, G. Herzog, M.D. Scanlon, J. Strutwolf

Published by CRC Press, Volume 25, 2013, 105-178.

ISBN: 9780429168987